higher for small firms, so they tend to set low payout ratios. Firms use the investment event as an opportunity to increase their cash reserves, which is inconsistent with a specific form of the pecking order theory of Myers and Majluf (1984). 10, the effect of different dividend policies for three alternatives of r may be shown as under: Thus, according to the Walter’s model, the optimum dividend policy depends on the relationship between the internal rate of return r and the cost of capital, k. The conclusion, which can be drawn up is that the firm should retain all earnings if r > k and it should distribute entire earnings if r < k and it will remain indifferent when r = k. Walter’s model has been criticized on the following grounds since some of its assumptions are unrealistic in real world situation: (i) Walter assumes that all investments are financed only be retained earnings and not by external financing which is seldom true in real world situation and which ignores the benefits of optimum capital structure. Modigliani and Miller’s hypothesis. The same can be illustrated with the help of the following formula: If no new/external financing exists, the value of the firm (V) will simply be the number of outstanding shares (n) times the prices of each share (P) by multiplying both sides of equation (1) we get: If, however, the firm sells (m) number of new shares at time 1 at a price of P1, the value of the firm (V) at time 0 will be: It has been explained some-where in this volume that the investment programme, at a given period of time, can be financed either from the proceeds of new issues or from the retained earnings or from both. of a firm affects its value, and it is based on the following important assumptions: Gordon’s model can be proved with the help of the following formula: 1 – b = D/p ratio (i.e., percentage of earnings distributed as dividends), According to Gordon’s Model, the price of a share is, If the firm follows a policy of 60% payout then b = 20% = 0.20, = 2.50 + (0.04 / 0.12 (10 – 2.50)) / 0.12, If the payout ratio is 50%, D = 50% of 10 = Birr. Uploader Agreement, Read Accounting Notes, Procedures, Problems and Solutions, Learn Accounting: Notes, Procedures, Problems and Solutions, Essay on Dividend Policy of a Company | Policies | Accounting, Top 10 Factors for Consideration of Dividend Policy, Risk and Uncertainty Analysis | Capital Budgeting. According to Gordon’s model, the market value of a share is equal to the present value of an infinite future stream of dividends. But, practically, it does not so happen. Not only that, even when a firm reaches the optimum capital structure level, the same should also be maintained in future. A stable dividend policy is the easiest and most commonly used. = Price at which new issue is to be made. On the contrary, when r

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